Determination of emm type for Streptococcus pyogenes by PCR<<Return to Laboratory
*Accredited by the Standards Council of Canada to Laboratory no. 594 (ISO/IEC 17025)
The determination of emm type for Streptococcus pyogenes.
- Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease
- Skin and soft tissue infections
- Toxic shock syndrome
- Necrotizing fasciitis
Pure culture, presumptively identified as S. pyogenes, isolated from a normally sterile site (blood, CSF, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, deep tissue specimen or biopsy taken during surgery, bone or joint fluid) or any site (even if non-sterile) in a case of toxic shock syndrome or necrotizing fasciitis. Exclude middle ear and superficial wound aspirates.
Isolate provided on culture medium.
Send as growth on culture medium or on a swab in transport medium. Chocolate or charcoal media are recommended. Cultures can be also shipped frozen on dry ice.
Shipping of specimens shall be done by a TDG certified individual in accordance with TDG regulations. For additional information regarding classification of specimens for the purposes of shipping, consult either Part 2 Appendix 3 of the TDG Regulations or section 3.6.2 of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations as applicable.
Invasive disease due to Streptococcus pyogenes.
Completed Isolate Submission Requisition for Streptococcus form including sender lab name, address and telephone number. Patient age or date of birth, sex, culture reference number, clinical source, date collected and test requested. The above information may also be sent in an excel file and to firstname.lastname@example.org, as well as a paper copy with the shipment.
Non-invasive isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes that are related to outbreak investigations may be submitted.
Duplicate samples should not be submitted without prior consent as they may not be processed. Isolates collected from the same patient within 3 weeks of each are considered duplicate.
*emm typing using whole genome sequencing (primary) (3,4)
emm typing using polymerase chain reaction (secondary) (1)
30 calendar days. Outbreak associated or urgent isolates will be granted priority status and completed as soon as possible. *Turn around times may not be guaranteed when isolates are submitted in large batches.
- Beall, Bernard, Gherardi, G., Lovgren, M., Facklam R.R., Forwick B.A. and Tyrrell, G.J. emm and sof gene sequence variation in relation to serological typing of opacity-factor-positive group A streptococci. Microbiology 2000;146:1195-1209.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Streptococcus Laboratory. Streptococcus Laboratory Protocols. Available at http://www.cdc.gov./ncidod/biotech/strep/protocols.htm.
- Athey TBT, Teatero S, Li A, Marchand-Austin A, Beall BW, Fittipaldi N. Deriving group A streptococcus typing information from short-read whole-genome sequencing data. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52(6):1871–1876.
- Kapatai G, Coelho J, Platt S, Chalker VJ. Whole genome sequencing of group A streptococcus: development and evaluation of an automated pipeline for emm gene typing. PeerJ. 2017;5:e3226.