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Genotyping by Sequencing - Cutaneous Types

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Requisition Forms

Reference Details


Array of conventional PCRs and genotyping by sequencing of Human Papilloma Viruses.

Test Category:
Cutaneous Human Papilloma virus (HPV)
Illnesses and Diseases:
  • Non-melanoma skin cancer, other skin malignancies or lesions of HPV etiology or unclear origin, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

Skin lesions, swabs or biopsies. No common or plantar warts.  The minimum volume required is 1/4 of the collected sample.  For fixed tissue, please submit 5 scrolls or entire block. Please see patient criteria below for submission of cutaneous lesions.

Collection Method:

Swabs for visible lesions in transport medium.  Fresh biopsy or fixed tissue of any lesion.

Specimen Processing, Storage and Shipping:

Place swabs in 2 mL or less of transport medium and provide entire collected specimen, or no less than 1/4 of specimen.  Specimens collected by swab may be stored and shipped refrigerated to NML within 48h of sample collection or must be stored and shipped frozen.  Fresh biopsies must be stored frozen at all times and shipped on dry ice.  Fixed tissue may be stored and shipped at room temperature. 

Transportation of Dangerous Goods:

Shipping of specimens shall be done by a TDG certified individual in accordance with TDG regulations. For additional information regarding classification of specimens for the purposes of shipping, consult either Part 2 Appendix 3 of the TDG Regulations or section 3.6.2 of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations as applicable.

Patient Criteria:

This service is offered for reference and confirmation only when HPV genotyping is required to confirm a diagnosis of skin cancer lesions, recurring or severe lesions of unclear origin, or suspected epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Common or plantar warts for differential diagnosis are not accepted.  Please describe the anatomical site, the type of lesion, the type of specimen and the reason for testing.   Contact the laboratory to determine if requests are acceptable and within our mandate. 

Accompanying Documentation:

Completed “Viral STI, Polyoma and Herpesvirus Testing” requisition form including sender lab name, address and telephone number, patient identifier, date of birth or age, sex, specimen reference #, anatomical site, type of specimen, type of skin malignancies, date collected, test requested, reason for testing and any other relevant clinical information.


Special request.  Not for routine diagnostic testing of common or plantar skin warts.  Contact the laboratory prior to sending specimens. 

Methods and Interpretation of Results:

Array of PCR methods (1,2) followed by direct sequencing. The precise HPV type is reported. Presence of additional types other that the one reported cannot be excluded. Detection limit varies with the HPV type. Please, note that not all known cutaneous types can be detected by the PCR methods available. Also note that when testing formalin-fixed specimens, the presence of HPV may not be detected due to the decreased sensitivity of the assay.

Turnaround Time:

Test is done by special request; inquire with lab for turnaround times.

Phone #: (204) 789-6024
Fax: (204) 318-2222
  1. Brink et al. Development of a General Primer PCR Reverse Line Blotting System for Detecton of Beta and Gamma Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus. 2005. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:5581-5587
  2. Berkhout, R.J.M. et al. Nested PCR Approach for Detection and Typing of Epidermodysplasia Verriformis-Associated Human Papillomavirus Types in Cutaneous Cancers from Renal Transplant Recipients. 1995. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:360-695.