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Molecular detection of Herpes B virus (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1)

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Detection of HBV virus by PCR amplification of HBV virus specific genome or isolation of virus. HBV detection is only done from appropriate samples following a human exposure to a macaque. (Appropriate samples for genome detection include symptomatic lesion from human patient or from CSF from symptomatic human patient).

Test Category:
Molecular Detection
Herpes B virus (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 1)
Illnesses and Diseases:
  • Encephalitis

Swab, CSF; minimum sample 0.5 mL. Formalin-fixed and/or paraffin –embedded tissues (CNS).

Notice: As of May 1st, 2024 the Special Pathogens program will no longer accept non-human primate samples for HBV detection.  

Collection Method:

CSF: Collect in sterile 1.5-2.0 mL tube.

Swabs: Dry cotton or dacron swab in sterile 1.5 – 2.0 mL tube, transport media is not recommended but may be used and should be indicated on the requisition.

Tissues: Fresh frozen tissues should be placed in plastic containers. Tissues that are formalin-fixed should also be sent in plastic containers and clearly identified as being in formalin. Paraffin-embedded tissues can be sent as entire blocks or four to six 10 uM sections in a plastic tube or vial.

Specimen Processing, Storage and Shipping:

Store samples in refrigerator or frozen until being shipped for testing.  Tissues should be shipped frozen. Ship frozen specimens on dry ice and refrigerated specimens on wet ice. Formalin-fixed samples can be sent at room temperature.

Transportation of Dangerous Goods:

Shipping of samples suspected of containing Risk Group 4 pathogens shall be done by a TDG certified individual in accordance with TDG regulations. If applicable, activate Emergency Response Assistance Plan (ERAP) 24 hours prior to shipping. To activate an ERAP, please click on the link below to access the transport flowchart for Risk Group 4 pathogens or call 204-999-7996 (available 24/7) for assistance.

Transport Flowchart for Risk Group 4 Pathogen(s)
Patient Criteria:

Symptomatic or recent contact to macaque monkeys. Detection of virus is only possible in symptomatic patients.

Accompanying Documentation:

Completed Special Pathogens requisition including sender name, address and telephone number. Patient information including name or identifier, date of birth, and all relevant patient history including clinical diagnosis, underlying diseases, exposure risk and travel history. Indicate type of specimen collected and all specimen information. Select all required tests. If possible, attach lab results that have already been done at local or provincial laboratories.


All patient history must be included; sample without adequate patient history to justify testing are subject to rejection. Contact Special Pathogens prior to submission of sample to ensure appropriate shipping documentation is generated.

PCR test validated.

Methods and Interpretation of Results:

For diagnosis of HBV infection to be confirmed, one or more of the following diagnostic markers must be positive: (i) presence of HBV virus by PCR, and (ii) isolation of HBV virus.

Turnaround Time:

2 calendar days.

Phone #: (204) 789-6019 or (204) 789-7032
Fax: (204) 789-2140
Related Information: