Language Selection


Resistance Mechanisms

<<Return to Laboratory

Requisition Forms

Reference Details


Beta-lactamase or carbapenemase resistance mechanisms are tested by PCR.

Test Category:
Molecular Detection
Gram negative organisms
Illnesses and Diseases:
  • Pneumonia
  • Bacteraemia
  • Meningitis
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Wound

Pure culture.

Collection Method:


Specimen Processing, Storage and Shipping:

Send cultures as growth on culture medium or in transport medium. Culture vessel should be leak-proof or sealed appropriately.

Transportation of Dangerous Goods:

Shipping of specimens shall be done by a TDG certified individual in accordance with TDG regulations. For additional information regarding classification of specimens for the purposes of shipping, consult either Part 2 Appendix 3 of the TDG Regulations or section 3.6.2 of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations as applicable.

Patient Criteria:


Accompanying Documentation:

Completed Antimicrobial Resistance and Nosocomial Infections Requisition.


Gram negative organisms may include but are not limited to: most Enterobacterales, Acinetobacter sp., and Pseudomonas sp.


Methods and Interpretation of Results:

PCR based method. Results are compared to known standards.Routine beta-lactamases tested: blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaOXA-1,. Routine AmpC tested: blaCMY-2-type. Routine carbapenemase variant-types tested: blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaGES, blaOXA-48, blaFRI, blaSME, blaNMC/IMI. In addition, the following colistin resistance genes are tested: mcr1/2, mcr-3.

Turnaround Time:

6 calendar days.

Phone #: (204) 789-5000
Fax: (204) 789-5020
  1. Mataseje LF, et al 2016. Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Canada: Results from the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, 2010-2014. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. pii: AAC.01359-16.
  2. Liu Y-Y, Wang Y, Walsh TR, Yi L-X, Zhang R, Spencer J, Doi Y, Tian G, Dong B, Hunag X, Yu L-F, Gu D, Ren H, Chen X, Lv L, He D, Zhou H, Liang Z, Liu J-H, Shen J. 2015. Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular study. Lancet Infect Dis;
Fact Sheets:
Related Information: