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Detection of IgM Antibodies Directed Towards Snowshoe Hare Virus by ELISA

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Requisition Forms

Reference Details


Serological detection of IgM antibodies directed towards snowshoe hare (SSH) virus by In-House MAC ELISA.

Test Category:
Snowshoe hare virus
Illnesses and Diseases:
  • Encephalitis

Paired sera collected 14 days apart OR serum AND CSF are required.  Minimum volume of 250 µl.  Please see California Serogroup Guidelines.

Collection Method:

2 mL screw cap tubes.

Specimen Processing, Storage and Shipping:

Store samples refrigerated or frozen until shipped for testing. Ship frozen samples on dry ice, and refrigerated samples on wet ice

Transportation of Dangerous Goods:

Shipping of specimens shall be done by a TDG certified individual in accordance with TDG regulations. For additional information regarding classification of specimens for the purposes of shipping, consult either Part 2 Appendix 3 of the TDG Regulations or section 3.6.2 of the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations as applicable.

For additional guidance on the transport of infectious substances in other languages, please click on the link below.


Patient Criteria:

Suspected California serogroup virus infection. Samples from patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology may also be submitted. Clinical samples that tested positive or generated equivocal results by IgM ELSIA are further tested by the SSH PRNT assay.

Accompanying Documentation:

Completed Viral Zoonoses requisition including sender laboratory name, address and telephone number.  Patient name and / or identifier (specimen reference number), date of birth, test(s) requested, collection date of specimen, date of on-set of symptoms, and clinical and travel history of patient. 


Clinical samples that tested positive or generated equivocal results by IgM ELSIA are further tested by the SSH plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).

Methods and Interpretation of Results:

The detection of anti-SSH virus IgG antibody in a single sera is indicative of past or present exposure to this agent. The presence of anti-SSH virus specific IgM in a single serum sample is consistent with an acute infection to this agent and meets the criteria for a "probable case". However, a 4 fold rise or greater in neutralizing antibody titre, or an IgG or IgM seroconversion in paired sera, is required to document a "confirmed case" of infection with associated illness. 

There is increasing evidence for IgM persistence in blood/serum for up to a year or more after arbovirus (i.e. members of the flavivirus, alphavirus, and bunyavirus arthropod borne virus groups) exposure.  Thus, detection of IgM by itself may not always be a confirmation of acute infection.

Isolation of an arbovirus, detection of specific antibody by plaque reduction neutralization assay or detection of nucleic acid by Real Time RT-PCR in a clinical specimen would constitute firm evidence of viral association with illness and provide "confirmed case" status.

Turnaround Time:

14 Calendar days.

Phone #: (204) 789-6097 or (204) 789-2106
Fax: (204) 789-2082
  1. Martin, D.A., Muth, D.A, Brown, T., Johnson, A.J., Karabatsos, N., and Roehrig, J.T. Standardization of immunoglobulin M capture enzyme-limked immunosorbent assays for routine diagnosis of arboviral infections. J. Clin. Micro. 2000; 38: 1823-1826.
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